Major constraints to impact of groundnut improvement are its low seed-to-seed ratio (seed multiplication ratio) and perishability. As a consequence, this crop is less attractive to the private seed sector than others, making it difficult for farmers to obtain improved seed.
West and Central Africa
A baseline household survey of adoption of improved groundnut varieties conducted as part of the Groundnut Seed Project in West and Central Africa indicated adoption rates of 44% in Mali, 14% in Niger and 32% in Nigeria (Ndjeunga et al. 2008). Another baseline survey, conducted by the Tropical Legumes II Project, indicated adoption rates of 3% in Mali, 24% in Niger and 8% in Nigeria. The discrepancies can be explained by the differing intervention sites that were sampled in the two studies. In a recent nationally-representative survey in Nigeria, an adoption rate of 22% was reported.
Eastern and Southern Africa
Using a nationally representative survey from Uganda, Kassie et al. (2010) estimated that 53% of the groundnut area was sown to improved varieties. Simtowe at al. (2012) reported adoption rates of 47% in Kenya, 57% in Malawi, 32% in Tanzania, and 56% in Uganda.
Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh state, India is the largest groundnut producing area in the world, containing 750,000 hectares of the crop. Over 50% of farm income in this area comes from groundnut. The new variety ICGV 91114 from ICRISAT released by India for this area increases yield by 23% and is more drought tolerant with higher-value large seeds, more uniform harvest maturity, disease tolerance and greater palatability of haulms (straw) for livestock.
As a result of adoption of this variety an estimated additional 42,000 tons of groundnut are being produced annually in Anantapur, worth US$3.7 million to 30,000 farm households (150,000 people). Net income from adoption increases by 35% on the average 1.5 ha groundnut field area per farmer, worth $110 extra US dollars (Birthal et al. 2011). Cows fed with these haulms also produce 11% more milk (0.5 liters/day per cow) (Nigam and Blummel 2010). The rate of adoption of this variety has been hampered by the seed production constraints mentioned above. Nevertheless, adoption is expected to increase to 35% of Anantapur’s groundnut area by 2020 (Birthal et al. 2011).
Birthal PS, Nigam, SN, Narayanan AV and Kareem KA. 2011. An economic assessment of the potential benefits of breeding for drought tolerance in Crops: A case of groundnut in India. Research Bulletin no. 25, ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. http://oar.icrisat.org/285/
Ndjeunga J, Ntare B, Waliyar F, Echekwu C, Kodio O, Kapran I, Diallo A, Amadou A, Bissala H and Da Syliva A. 2008. Early adoption of modern groundnut varieties in West Africa. Socioeconomics and Policy Program Working Paper no. 24. Hyderabad, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
Nigam SN and Blummel M. 2010. Cultivar-dependent variation in food-feed-traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 10S: 39-48.